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Organic Chemistry
Carbon
Atoms
PrefixExample
1methmethane
2ethethane
3proppropane
4butbutane
5pentpentane
6hexhexane
7heptheptane
8octoctane
9nonnonane
10decdecane
If more than 10 carbons in chain
use prefix below, followed by decade name
0 10 carbons =
decane
1un11 carbons =
undecane
2dododecane
3tritridecane
4tetratetradecane
5pentapentadecane
6hexahexadecane
7heptaheptadecane
8octaoctadecane
9nonanonadecane
Prefixes for longer carbon chains
20icosicosane
21unicosunicosane
22doicosdoicosane
30triaconttriacontane
40tetraconttetracontane
50pentacontpentacontane
60hexaconthexacontane
70heptacontheptacontane
80octacontoctacontane
90nonacontnonacontane
100hecthectane
Organic Compounds (2)
Group
Suffix
Desc.Example
Alcohols
anol
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more OH attached butanol
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-OH
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Alkanes
ane
normal chain of carbon atoms with no multiple bonds Butane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Alkenes
ene
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more double bonds Butene
  H   H H
  |   | |
H-C-C=C-C-H
  | |   |
  H H   H
  
Alkynes
yne
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more triple bonds Butyne
  H     H 
  |     |
H-C-C≡C-C-H
  |     |
  H     H
  
Amides
anamide
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 more =O,NH2 butanamide
  H H H 
  | | | 
H-C-C-C-C-NH2
  | | | ‖
  H H H O
  
Amines
anamine
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more NH2 butanamine
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-NH2
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Bromides
bromo
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more bromine attached bromobutane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-Br
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Carboxylic Acids
anoic acid
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more =O,OH attached butanoic acid
  H H H 
  | | | 
H-C-C-C-C=O
  | | | |
  H H H OH
  
Chorides
chloro
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more chlorine attached chlorobutane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-Cl
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Cyanides
cyano
normal chain of carbon atoms with a ≡N cyanobutane
  H H H
  | | |
H-C-C-C-C≡N
  | | |
  H H H
  
Cyclic
cyclo
Contains a ring of carbon atoms cyclohexane
  H     H
   \   /
    C-C
   /   \
H-C     C-H
   \   /
    C-C
   /   \
  H     H    
Esters
...yl...
normal chain of carbon atoms with an Oxgen in the main chain and a =O off linked carbon methylethane
Note this has 2 carbon chains, methane and ethane, linked by the yl.
  H     H
  |     |
H-C-O-C-C-H
  |   ‖ |
  H   O H
  
Ethers
...oxy...
normal chain of carbon atoms with an Oxgen in the main chain methoxyethane
Note this has 2 carbon chains, methane and ethane, linked by the oxy.
  H   H H
  |   | |
H-C-O-C-C-H
  |   | |
  H   H H
  
Fluorides
fluoro
normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more fluorine attached fluorobutane
  H F H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Ketones
anone
normal chain of carbon atoms with double bonded O off the main chain butanone
  H H O H
  | | ‖ | 
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | |   |
  H H   H
  
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