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Chemistry Crib Sheet 4 - Organic Compounds (1)
Carbon
Atoms
PrefixExample
1methmethane
2ethethane
3proppropane
4butbutane
5pentpentane
6hexhexane
7heptheptane
8octoctane
9nonnonane
10decdecane
If more than 10 carbons in chain
use prefix below, followed by decade name
0 10 carbons =
decane
1un11 carbons =
undecane
2dododecane
3tritridecane
4tetratetradecane
5pentapentadecane
6hexahexadecane
7heptaheptadecane
8octaoctadecane
9nonanonadecane
Prefixes for longer carbon chains
20icosicosane
21unicosunicosane
22doicosdoicosane
30triaconttriacontane
40tetraconttetracontane
50pentacontpentacontane
60hexaconthexacontane
70heptacontheptacontane
80octacontoctacontane
90nonacontnonacontane
100hecthectane
Organic Compounds (2)
GroupDescriptionSuffix
/Prefix
Example
Alcohols normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more OH attached anol butanol
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-OH
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Alkanes normal chain of carbon atoms with no multiple bonds ane Butane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Alkenes normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more double bonds ene Butene
  H   H H
  |   | |
H-C-C=C-C-H
  | |   |
  H H   H
  
Alkynes normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more triple bonds yne Butyne
  H     H 
  |     |
H-C-C≡C-C-H
  |     |
  H     H
  
Amides normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 more =O,NH2 anamine butanamide
  H H H 
  | | | 
H-C-C-C-C-NH2
  | | | ‖
  H H H O
  
Amines normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more NH2 anamine butanamine
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-NH2
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Bromides normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more bromine attached fluoro bromobutane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-Br
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Carboxylic Acids normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more =O,OH attached anoic acid butanoic acid
  H H H 
  | | | 
H-C-C-C-C=O
  | | | |
  H H H OH
  
Chorides normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more chlorine attached fluoro chlorobutane
  H H H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-Cl
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Cyanides normal chain of carbon atoms with a ≡N fluoro cyanobutane
  H H H
  | | |
H-C-C-C-C≡N
  | | |
  H H H
  
Cyclic Contains a ring of carbon atoms cyclo cyclohexane
  H     H
   \   /
    C-C
   /   \
H-C     C-H
   \   /
    C-C
   /   \
  H     H    
Esters normal chain of carbon atoms with an Oxgen in the main chain and a =O off linked carbon ...yl... methylethane
Note this has 2 carbon chains, methane and ethane, linked by the yl.
  H     H
  |     |
H-C-O-C-C-H
  |   ‖ |
  H   O H
  
Ethers normal chain of carbon atoms with an Oxgen in the main chain ...oxy... methoxyethane
Note this has 2 carbon chains, methane and ethane, linked by the oxy.
  H   H H
  |   | |
H-C-O-C-C-H
  |   | |
  H   H H
  
Fluorides normal chain of carbon atoms with 1 or more fluorine attached fluoro fluorobutane
  H F H H
  | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | | | |
  H H H H
  
Ketones normal chain of carbon atoms with double bonded O off the main chain anone butanone
  H H O H
  | | ‖ | 
H-C-C-C-C-H
  | |   |
  H H   H
  
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